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Встречай солнце!

19

Костер обязательно заставит ночь отступить… 

Во многих странах отмечают древний языческий праздник летнего солнцестояния. У кельтов, в Ирландии, он начинается 21 июня, со Дня Лита, и заканчивается 24-го Ночью Костра. Славяне традиционно в это же время гуляют Ивана-Купала, а в прибалтийских странах празднуют: в Латвии – Лиго, в Литве – Йонинес, в Эстонии – Яанипяэвэ.

 

Пора вспомнить традиции разных народов, которые сводятся не только к распитию декалитров пива.

Жги священный клевер

Летнее солнцестояние издревле отмечали во всех областях, где жили кельты. Христианская церковь безрезультатно веками пыталась уничтожить праздник, стереть, и даже «приурочила» к этому времени день рождения Иоанна Крестителя (24-го по старому стилю)…

В основе языческого праздника культ солнца. С днем летнего солнцестояния и самой короткой ночью связано много преданий о силах Тьмы, не желающих сдаваться Свету. Именно поэтому люди должны помогать Природе отгонять ночь – жечь костры: кроме огромных, которые разводили в центре любого крупного поселения, были и небольшие – около каждого дома. Одна из священных трав ритуального костра – клевер, символ Ирландии…

Огонь костра охраняет человека от любого зла. Если отблеск или тень от костра падает на поля, в этом месте будет особенно хорошо всходить урожай. В древности в Ирландии утром зарывали угольки из костров на полях, чтобы сделать их плодородными…

В обрядовых нарядах кельтов всегда преобладали яркие цвета лета – желтый, красный, зеленый. Люди украшают себя и жилище ветками и венками из душистых цветов, а в лесу оставляют для фей и эльфов разные лакомства – чтобы задобрить. Впрочем, угощать принято и людей. Например, в старину ирландцы вечером выставляли на улицу перед каждым домом столы, на которых был сыр, масло, творог, лепешки, бутылки с виски и элем (им обязательно поили всех прохожих!). Ну а после самой короткой ночи наступят «горькие шесть недель», голодное время – до начала сбора урожая в августе…

 

Хмельное Лиго

Если в Ирландии самым священным растением в магическое время считается клевер, то в Латвии (и во многих других странах) – папоротник. Когда природа набирает полную силу, папоротник расцветает ночью на короткое мгновение. Смельчаки всегда отправляются в лес, чтобы увидеть цветок и собрать семена папоротника. Но искать цветок опасно: его охраняет разная нечисть. Зато тот, кто соберет семена, станет невидимым и сможет наблюдать танцы фей в волшебную ночь.

Древние традиции в прибалтийских странах чтут, но… Теперь в основном все сводится лишь к потреблению безумного количества пива, тминного сыра и других продуктов, а в прошлом все было пропитано магическим смыслом: песни, танцы, разные ритуалы способствовали плодородию полей, здоровью людей и домашних животных…

Мужчинам должны дарить дубовые венки, а женщинам – венки из полевых цветов. Кстати, женщины в венках обязаны в магическую ночь искупаться голышом: смыть грехи и наколдовать себе вечную молодость. Иммигранты (иммигрантки), перед вами целый Атлантический океан!

Поймай русалку за хвост

Традиции славян в Иванов день и ночь, а так же на Купалу (праздник Купайла, то есть – Солнца), во многом совпадают с теми, что были у кельтов и балтов: приветствие союза Солнца и Земли, призывы будущего урожая и благополучия, отпугивание злых духов.

Но есть и отличия. Например, славяне в каждом конкретном поселении жгли лишь один гигантский костер: чем он выше, тем страшнее нечистой силе. Особые ритуалы были – поклонения воде: просили русалок, чтобы они ночью не покидали реки и не воровали у девушек женихов, водивших хороводы у костров. Было чем заняться и одиноким девушкам: чтобы приворожить избранника, приходилось трижды обегать нагишом вокруг ржаного поля. Потом девушка будет сниться возлюбленному много ночей подряд, и тот обязательно к ней придет… И какой же праздник без хмельных напитков! Древние русичи обязательно пили медовую сурью, дающую особую силу. И вся природа радуется в Зачарованную Ночь: особенно громко кукует кукушка и звонко поет соловей, деревья переходят с места на место и разговаривают друг с другом…

 

Игорь МЕЙДЕН.

 

…Есть несколько народных примет на день летнего солнцестояния. “Солнце на восходе играет – к счастью в доме”; “Сильная роса – к урожаю огурцов”; “На Ивана ночь звездная  – много будет грибов”; “Если дождь заплачет, то через пять дней солнышко будет смеяться”…

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