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СВЯТАЯ БРИГИТА

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Святая Бригита – не сугубо католическая или православная святая, она – святая единой неразделенной Церкви Христовой. В православной традиции ее называют преподобной Бригитой, игуменьей Киль­дар­ской, царевной Ирландской.

Эту святую почитают во многих странах мира – в Европе и в России. Храмы в ее честь есть в Италии, в Португалии, в Бельгии, в Англии, где целых 19 церквей, освященных в честь святой Бригиты, и, конечно же, в Ирландии.

Принято считать, что святая Бригита помогает всем. Она покровительница повитух и новорожденных, поэтов и ученых, моряков и путешественников, кузнецов и доярок.

Согласно преданию, Святой Патрик, самый почитаемый в Ирландии святой, питал к Бригите особенное благоволение и называл ее самой любимой своей ученицей.

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Где и когда она родилась? Сведения на этот счет противоречивы. Одно из преданий гласит, что Бригита родилась 1 февраля в графстве Килдэр, где позднее основала самый знаменитый, смешанный (мужской и женский) монастырь Ирландии. По одним сведениям ее семья была знатной, по другим – она была дочерью рабыни. С именем этой святой связано немало ирландских преданий и легенд.

По одной из них, Бригитта была чрезвычайно щедрой с самого детства. Она отдавала людям все, что могла, даже то, что ей не принадлежало. Бригита не понимала, что есть «свое» и «чужое», и однажды подарила кому-то весь запас масла своей матери. Когда мать расстроилась, девочка горячо помолилась – и запасы ценного продукта были восстановлены. Девочка отдавала свою обувь – чтобы кто-то другой не бродил по острым камням, плащ – чтобы кого-то не терзал ветер…

Бригита выросла, и родители пожелали выдать дочку замуж. Однако девушка – одного за другим – отвергала всех женихов, не желая связывать себя узами супружества, и предпочла принести монашеский обет.

Согласно легенде, Бригита однажды обратилась к королю с просьбой о выделении земли под строительство монастыря. Определила и размер участка: “столько земли, сколько сумею накрыть своим плащом”. Наивный король с радостью согласился на эту просьбу, не зная о способности Бригиты творить чудеса. А чудо свершилось – распахнутый плащ Святой накрыл огромный луг в графстве Килдэр, где вскоре и появился монастырь Святой Бригиты. Монашеская община, которую она основала, стала быстро расти благодаря славе святой настоятельницы. К щедрости и великодушию святой прибегало множество людей, от нищих прокаженных до выдающихся иерархов Церкви.

Бригита прославилась своими чудесами и своей добротой. Она раздавала еду бедным, исцеляла больных и никому не отказывала в помощи. Она помогала людям и жалела животных, к ней тянулись все, чувствуя, что рядом со святой они будут согреты любовью, обласканы и поняты. В руках Бригиты еда и питье для гостей практически не иссякало, всегда хватало на всех.

По преданию, святая однажды трудилась под проливным дождем и промокла до нитки. Вернувшись домой, она повесила свои одежды сушиться на солнечный луч, приняв его от усталости за ветку дерева. И одежды святой Бригиты повисли на луче, как будто он действительно был древесной ветвью.

Святая Бригита была похоронена в городе Даунпатрик рядом со святым Патриком. Ее почитание быстро распространилось сначала по Ирландии, а затем по всей западной церкви. Память святой Бригиты Ирландской в Католической Церкви отмечают 1 февраля, в Православной Церкви —23 января.

Как и святой Патрик, святая Бригита считается покровительницей Ирландии.

1 февраля

Считалось, что накануне 1 февраля святая Бригита путешествует по стране, благословляя людей и их жилища. Как символ того, что в этом доме ей рады и с нетерпением ждут ее посещения, у окна выкладывали пирог или хлеб с маслом. Рядом размещали несколько колосьев для ее любимой белой коровы. А в некоторых графствах специально к этому дню пекли хлеб в форме креста.

В этот день можно было повсюду увидеть развешанные полоски ткани или ленты (они назывались мантиями Бригиты). Это делалось для того, чтобы обеспечить здоровье всех членов семьи на весь следующий год. Считалось, что если святая коснется их, то они приобретут целебные свойства.

В праздник святой Бригиты были запрещены любые действия, связанные с вращением колеса. Например, в этот день нельзя кататься на велосипедах.

Рассказывают, что однажды святая Бригита посетила умирающего правителя-язычника и окрестила его крестом, сплетенным тут же из тростника. Отсюда пошел обычай в день святой Бригиты плести камышовые или тростниковые кресты для защиты дома в течение всего следующего года.

Две Бригиты

Сюжеты о святой перекликаются с одной стороны – с евангельским чудом с пятью хлебами и рыбами, а с другой стороны – со свойствами языческой богини плодородия Бригиты. Интересно, что 1 февраля у язычников был праздник богини Бригиты.

Это совпадение дало повод исследователям ирландского христианства обратиться к изучению связи двух Бригит. По мнению одного из исследователей, «Бригита является одной из ирландских святых, чья связь с языческим божеством несомненна. Определенные черты ее характера и деятельности основаны на мифе и ритуале, посвященном богине – возможно, богине, связанной с культом огня … Можно добавить, что день ее поминовения, 1 февраля, приходится на Имболк, один из четырех больших языческих календарных праздников. Еще более убедителен тот факт, что Бригита – было имя ирландской, а в действительности, и пан-кельтской богини… Примечательно, что святая переняла некоторые атрибуты, приписывавшиеся богине».

Источники:

https://drevo-info.ru/articles/5116.html

http://www.russianireland.com

http://www.pravoslavie.ru/51594.html

http://www.russianireland.com/index.php/ru/travel/history/8429-1-fevralya-den-svyatoj-brigity-kilderskoj

http://mifolog.ru/mythology/item/f00/s00/e0000860/index.shtml

http://irelandru.com/brigita/

http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Irland/St-Brigitte/pred.phtml?id=3063

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