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Апрельские тезисы Пасхального восстания.

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24 апреля 1916 года Революционный Совет “Ирландского Братства” возглавил армию повстанцев и народных добровольцев, начав массовое сопротивление против британской тирании.

В полдень на Главпочтамте в Дублине Патрик Пирс прочитал перед собравшимся «Прокламацию Ирландской Республики»: «Во имя Бога и ушедших поколений, завещавших нам традиции и национальность, водрузим над Ирландией флаг свободы!»

Толпа самоотверженно слушала своего лидера, готовая на защиту собственных прав за воплощение многовековой мечты о независимости родины.

«Мы провозглашаем право граждан Ирландии на свободу, самоопределение и самоуправление! – продолжал оратор. – Перед лицом всего мира настоящим объявляем Ирландскую Республику суверенным независимым государством, и посвящаем наши жизни и жизнь наших товарищей по оружию благополучию и славе нашей отчизны»

Это было призывом к началу вооружённого сопротивления.

Ровно через год в это же время 7 съезд РСДРП заслушает и примет «Апрельские тезисы» Ленина как руководство к революционным действиям, главным требованием в которых выдвигалась необходимость перехода всей государственной власти к Советам рабочих и крестьянских депутатов. Чёткое определение задач и плана действий способствовало активному развёртыванию социалистической революции в России.

Ирландские лидеры выдвигали фундаментальные требования прекращения узурпации и установления республиканской власти; при этом конкретная схема форсирования отсутствовала. К тому же перед началом выступления часть Революционного Совета потребовала отмены акции, поставив организацию перед риском раскола. А оружие для повстанцев, переправляемое кораблём из Германии, было перехвачено британскими военными.

В дни Пасхальных празднований вооружённые подразделения «Ирландского Братства», группы «Добровольцев» и члены Гражданской Армии заняли территориально значимые объекты города, осадили здания государственной важности, укрепились в Феникс парке и St Stephen Green.

 OConnellBridge

Повстанцы строили баррикады, воздвигая над ними флаг суверенной республики. Но уже к вечеру Пасхального воскресенья накал боевых действий стал спадать, а повстанцам приходилось защищаться не только от британских солдат, но и от местного населения, атакующего уличные баррикады.

Ещё несколько дней понадобилось королевским войскам, чтобы разгромить разбросанные по городу мелкие отряды «Добровольцев».

Волна преследований, массовых арестов и репрессий охватила остров. Более 4000 человек были задержаны, заключены в тюрьмы и подвергнуты жестоким допросам.

90 мужчин были приговорены к смертной казни, из которых многие не имели прямого отношения к революции.

Расстрелы во внутреннем дворе тюрьмы Килмейнхем / Kilmainham Gaol, Дублин/ продолжались с 3-го по 12-ое мая 1916 года, отдаваясь глухим эхом по городу.

Последним был казнён Джеймс Конноли, который не мог стоять из-за тяжёлых ранений, полученных в бою; враги «великодушно» предоставили ему стул. Смело смотрел он в глаза палачей, гордый избранным уделом – пожертвовать собой ради горячо любимой отчизны. «Предпочтительнее бороться и потерпеть поражение, чем принять подачку от узурпаторов и довольствоваться малым», – говорил он товарищам по оружию.

К началу восстания лидер ирландской революции оказался в полной изоляции, характеризующейся отсутствием интернациональных связей, внутренними партийными разногласиями, слабым составом передового пролетариата. Однако навязчивая мысль о необходимости вооружённой атаки на тиранов во имя независимости родины не покидала его и укрепляла веру в достижение поставленной цели.

Незадолго до атаки, ведя за собой отчаянных «Добровольцев», Конноли не скрывал, что идёт навстречу верной гибели. «Есть ли хоть какой-либо шанс выжить?» – спросил его один из воинов. «Ни одного», – ответил Синар (Ceannaire в переводе с ирландского – вождь).

У окровавленной стены тюрьмы рядом с Джеймсом Конноли стоял Шон МакДиармада, который по иронии злой судьбы никогда прежде не симпатизировал ему. Шон недавно вступил в «Иисусов возраст» и в течение всей своей сознательной жизни поддерживал идею независимости Ирландии; оружием и пером защищал права своего народа.

MacDiarmada 

МакДиармада редактировал радикальную газету «Ирландская свобода» с 1910 года. Он отчаянно призывал собратьев отказаться от служения в Британской армии, за что был арестован в 1915 году. 6 месяцев он провёл в тюрьме в антигуманных условиях. Его здоровье было подорвано полиомиелитом; он с трудом передвигался, однако поля битвы не оставил.

Один из английских военных скептически заметил, что «Добровольцы» не гнушаются даже калеками. Ему перед расстрелом не позволили сидеть… С трудом стоя рядом с окровавленным Джеймсом Конноли он гордо проговорил: «Я счастлив как никогда в жизни, потому что умираю ради того, чтобы жила ирландская нация!»

Продолжение следует

Сабина Салeм

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