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15 фактов об ирландском флаге или Краткая история ирландского триколора

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В 2016 году Ирландия отмечает 100 летнюю годовщину «Пасхального восстания», событие положившее основу государственности современной Республики Ирландия.

 

Одним из главных символов страны стал трех цветный ораньжево-бело-зеленый флаг. Вот несколько неизвестных фактов о Ирландском триколоре.

 

1.       Всем известно, что знаменитым ирландский триколор стал в 1916 году во время Пасхального восстания. На самом же деле задолго до этого, а именно 7 марта 1848 года лидер «Молодой Ирландии» Томас Фрэнсис Мигер представил этот флаг в Париже.

2.       Ирландский триколор упоминался и еще раньше в 1830 и в 1844 годах. Он развевался во многих уголках страны, бок о бок с французским флагом, в честь происходившей там революции.

3.       Ирландия в то время была расколота между католиками и протестантами и чрезвычайно страдала от последствий Великого голода, который убил около миллиона ирландцев и еще миллион заставил эмигрировать.

4.       Представивший флаг Томас Мигер желал видеть Ирландию обновленной, где бы католики и протестанты объединились во имя общей независимости.

5.       Мигер и «Молодая Ирландия» были вдохновлены революциями 1848 года в Париже, Берлине, Вене, Риме, Праге и Будапеште, в результате которых цари и императоры были свергнуты со своих престолов и вслед за этим образовались  демократические республики. Эти революции воодушевили сторонников «Молодой Ирландии» свергнуть британское правление в стране настолько мирным путем, насколько это было возможно. В апреле 1848 года Мигер, Уильям Смит О’Брайен и Ричард О’Горман отправились в Париж, чтобы поздравить французов со свержением короля Луи-Филиппа. Французские женщины своими руками сшили из тончайшего шелка ирландский триколор и подарили его Мигеру.

6.       Вернувшись в Дублин, 15 апреля 1848 года Мигер представил флаг гражданам Ирландии со словами: “Белый в центре символизирует примирение “оранжевых” и “зеленых” (то есть католиков и протестантов).

7.       Позже Мигер был осужден за организацию восстания молодых ирландцев в 1848 году. Перед судом, он сказал, что в один прекрасный день будущие поколения увидят трехцветный флаг, гордо реющим над Ирландией. Двое других лидеров восстания сбежали в Америку, чтобы сформировать «Братство фениев», тайное общество, которое впоследствии привело к созданию Ирландского Республиканского Братства (ИРБ) в Ирландии. Много лет спустя, члены ИРБ организовали и возглавили Пасхальное восстание.

8.       В Пасхальный понедельник 24 апреля 1916 года, ИРБ, ирландские добровольцы и Ирландская гражданская армия водрузили ирландский триколор на самом высоком здании Дублина.

9.       Впоследствии флаг был использован ИРА во время Ирландской войны за независимость (1919-1921). После обретения независимости в 1922 году флаг реял над  свободным теперь государством (1922-1937) и был включен в Конституцию 1937 года.

10.   Зеленая полоса на флаге символизирует ирландский республиканизм, рожденный в обществе Соединенных ирландцев в 1790-е годы.

11.   Оранжевая полоса на флаге представляет собой Протестантское меньшинство в Ирландии. Эта полоса была изображена на ирландском флаге в попытке включить и ирландских протестантов в национально-освободительное движение.

12.   Многие ирландские протестанты были сторонниками Вильгельма Оранского, голландского принца – протестанта, который стал королем Британии Вильямом III. Будучи на престоле, Вильям победил католического короля Якова, а главное его Католическую армию в битве на реке Бойн в 1690 году. Сегодня «оранжисты» на Севере страны продолжают отмечать эту протестантскую победу парадами и кострами 12 июля каждого года.

13.   Белая полоса в центре флага символизирует надежду на прочный мир между двумя культурами на острове Ирландия – националистической, преимущественно католической Ирландии, и юнионистической, главным образом протестантской Ирландии. Флаг в целом, следовательно, должен символизировать наличие и примирение различных религий на острове Ирландия, которые выражены в статье 2 Конституции Ирландии как право каждого человека, родившегося в Ирландии, быть частью независимой Ирландской нации, независимо от этнического происхождения, религии или политических убеждений.

14.   Иногда вы можете увидеть флаги, на которых золотая полоса вместо оранжевой. Ирландское правительство говорит, что это означает “активное действие”, в целях укрепления мира и единства. Правительство не желает, чтобы протестанты чувствовали себя обделенными.

Существуют специальные правила использования Государственного флага. Главное правило заключается в том, что никакой другой флаг или вымпел не должен быть поднят выше него.  Флаг не должен касаться земли или скрываться в листве деревьев. Правила также говорят, что национальный флаг запрещается портить путем размещения на нем лозунгов, логотипов, надписей или картинок любого рода. Правила также говорят, государственный флаг должен быть заменен, если он выглядит изношенным или потертым, так как в таком виде он уже не вызывает должного уважения.

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